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Glossary of Selected People
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Louis L'Amour's The Walking Drum


Banquet in Honour of Charles IV of France

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Glossary of People

Glossary of Places

Glossary of Things

ABD-AL-MUMIN Abd-al-Mumin was a Berber. He was the founder of Almohad's dynasty. He succeeded Ibn Rumart. He then took the title of Caliph. He conquered Morocco (114-147) and other parts of North Africa. By 1154, he also ruled Islamic Spain and part of Portugal. (LnRn)

BERBERSThe Berbers/are a people whose empire reached its height during Kerbouchard's time. From about 1050 to1250, the Berbers controlled most of northern Africa. The desert Berbers ruled Morocco, western Algeria, and southern Spain. The mountain Berbers overthrew the desert Berbers and formed the Almohad Empire. The Empire split in the early 1200's, but the Berbers still ruled some lands until the 16th Century. Today, there are about 15 milion Berbers in Northwest Africa and the Sahara.(LnUn,EeMy,MyOe)

BRETONSThe Bretons are people who come from Brittany, a small portion of Northwestern France. The Bretons are known for their free spirit and old traditions. Speaking the Breton language, they stand out from the rest of France. Today, however, most Bretons speak French. In The Walking Drum, Mathurin Kerbouchard was a Breton.(JaSr)

CHARLEMAGNECharlemagne (also known as Charles the Great) was King of the Franks and Emperor of the Romans. He led his Frankish armies to victory over many people and ruled most of western and central Europe. He was the best-known king in the Middle Ages. Charlemagne was probably born in Aachen on April 2, 742, the son of the Frankish King Pepin the Short. In 751, Pepin assumed the royal Merovingian title for himself. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II in 754. Besides anointing Pepin, Pope Stephen anointed both Charlemange and his younger brother Carolman. Within the year, Pepin invaded Itlay to save the Pope from the Lombards, and in 756, he again had to rush Pope's aid. When Pepin died in 786, his land was to be shared between his two sons. Charlemagne wanted an alliance with the Lombards. He got this my marying the daughter of their king, Desiderius. In 771, Carolman died suddenly, and Charlemagne then seized his territories. Since he established Frankish rule over so many people, Charlemagne has, in fact, built an empire and became an emperor. It remained only for him to add the title. On Christmas Day, in 800, Charlemagne knelt to pray in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. Pope Leo III then put a crown upon his head. Einhard reported that the King was surprised by this coronation and if he had known it was going to happen, he would not have gone to church that day. This report has led to much speculation by historians. Charlemange probably desired and expected to get the imperial title, and he subsequently used it. In 813, he designated his sole son, Louis, as his succesor and personally crowned him. (CyGs)

CHARLES MARTELCharles Martel was born in 676 in Gaul, which is a region in Europe that is now present-day France, Belgium, and Germany west of the Rhine River. He was not a king, but he served as "mayor of the palace" for several weak kings. He fought to establish order and rule in northern Gaul. At a later date, he put the southeastern part of France under control. Martel conquered Frisia and present-day Netherlands. Doing missionary work, he helped Germany convert to Christianity. Charles Martel stopped a Muslim army from intruding aat the Battle of Tours and the Battle of Poitiers. He was called Martel, meaning Hammer, because of his glorious outcome. He had2 wives and 5 children over the course of his life. His third child, Pepin the Short was King of Franks. (LnAs,EaSy)

ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE Eleanor of Aquitaine was born in approximately 1122. In 1137 she married Louis VII, becoming the Queen Consort of France. That same year she inherited the Duchy of Aquitaine. Rumor had it that she aommitted adultry while at the Second Crusade in the Holy Land. The marriage was annuled in 1152 under the pretext of blook kinship between the couple. The fact that she had not produced a male heir also played a part. After her annulment, she married the Count of Anjou, who became Henry II, King of England. WHen her sons, including Richard and John, revolted against their father, she supported them and was placed inprison until 1185. When King Henry II dies in 1189, she ruled until her son's return from the Third Crusade. She died at an abbey in France, April 1, 1204. Eleanor would have been queen of France during the time of Kerbouchard in The Walking Drum She played an important role in the power struggle between England and France because of her control of Aquitaine.

ERATOSTHENESEratosthenes was a Greek astronomer who lived between the years of 276-197 BC. Eratosthenes was born in Cyrene, a Greek town in Northern Africa. He was the first person to make an accurate calculation of Earth. Like many other Greek scientists of his time, he knew the Earth was round. Eratosthenes knew that at noon on the day of summer soltice in Alexandria, Egypt, a vertical post casts a shadow. But at noon in Syene, a town in the South, a vertical post casts no shadow. He based his calculation on geometry. He then measured the angle formed by a post and an imaginary line from the end of the shadow to the top of the post. By treating the sun's rays as parallels, he could assume that the measured angle equaled to the angle formed at the Earth's center by imaginary lines between the two towns. The connection of Eratesthenes to The WalkignDrum book was that Kerbouchard had read Eratosthenes's works while in jail.(JeCi)

Frederick I Barbarossa Frederick I (1123?-1190) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Germany (1152-1190), and King of Itlay (1155-1190). After the death of his uncle, Barbarossa was made the German King and elected Holoy Roman Emperor in 1152. The fifth expedition(1174-1176) of Barbarossa to Italy was unsuccessful and was defeated by the Lombard League of North Italian Cities. Barbarossa was forced in 1177 to acknowledge Alexander III as Pope. Lombard cities forced Barbarossa to grant them self-government in the Peace of Constance in 1183. He made Poland tributary to the Empire, and raised Bohemia to the rank of a kingdom. In 1180, he defeated Henry the Lion and deprived him of most of his lands. He initiated the Third Crusade in 1189. (LnRn)

GALENGalen was an outstanding physician in the Second Century. Galen received medical training and settled in Rome as a physician. He gained renown and recognition for his skill as a physician. Galen also proved many of the functions of the human body such as the connection between muscles and the spinal cord. HE noted the functions of the Kidney and bladder and also showed that arteries carry blood. Galen ties in with The Walking Drum because while Kerbouchard was in jail, he head many books Galen had written. (CeGm)

GOTHS and VISIGOTHS The Goths migrated from southern Scandinavia before the time of Jesus Christ. Around the Third Century, the Goths had settled in the areas near the Black Sea. The groups of people who settled around the Danube River were called the Visigoths. The Visigoths coexisted peacefully with the Romans. The Romans traded with the Visigoths. When the Huns pushed the Visigoths west into the Roman Empire, the Visigoths won a battle at Rome in 410. In 370, the Ostrogoths were conquered by the Huns. (CnFr)

HIPPOCRATES Hippocrates was born in 460BC on the island of Cos in Greece. He died in 377 BC in Larissa Thessaly. He was a Greek physician of antiquity. Hippocrates is regarded as the father of medicine. His name is used for the oath tht new physicians have to take. The oath is called the Hippocratic Oath. In the book, The Walking Drum Kerbouchard translated a few things that Hippocrates had written. (AaVs)

PHONECIANS The Phonecians were ancient people who lived around the same time that Kerbouchard did. Their homeland was on the eastern Mediterranean seaboard. The name "Phonecians" was given by the Greeks to the inhabitants of the coastal region of present-day Lebanon and the adjacent shores of Israel and Syria. They were at the height of the civilization durint the same time as The Walking Drum (LnUn)

PLUTARCH Plutarch (46?-120?AD) was a Greek biographer and essayist who was famous for his work in Paralled Lives of Illustrious Greek and Romans. He wrote in pairs, comparing the two sets of people (Greek and Roman). Lives became a basis of many stories and poems. People such as Shakespeare and Sir Thomas North used his materials. Plutarch also wrote essays and dialogues on various things such as Morals, and the Face on the Moon (NiLh)

VANDALS The Vandals were a Germanic tribe of Barbarians that invaded the Roman Empire during the early 400's AD. They helped bring about the Empire's decline. Originally, they were a group of tribes that lived on the southern coast of present Norway, Sweeden, Denmark and the Danish islands. They migrated to Europe about 100BC. In the late 300's AD they moved westward because they were threatened by the Huns. In 455 they looted Rome. In 534, they were captured, and their nation broke up. (GyCu)